Heterosis and combining ability analysis for grain quality and physico chemical traits involving fertility restorers with basmati background in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)
A study was undertaken to explore possibility of developing hybrids and analyze them for heterosis and combining ability for basmati grain and physico‑chemical attributes. Initially 45 improved germplasm lines of aromatic and non‑aromatic genotypes were test crossed with four cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) lines viz; IR 58025A, IR62829A, PMS10A and PMS 3A of wild abortive cytosterile source to identify basmati pollen parents restoring fertility. Ninteen pollen restorers of basmati background were identified and crossed with 4 CMS lines in line x tester design and analysed for heterosis and combining ability. Observations were recorded for grain quality characteristics viz; hulling percentage, milling percentage and head rice recovery per cent and physico‑chemical traits viz; aroma, grain length and breadth before and after cooking, grain length and breadth ratio, kernel elongation ratio, water uptake ratio, volume expansion ratio and gelatinization temperature. Analysis of variance indicated significant difference (p<0.05) among genotypes exhibiting wealth of variability. No heterosis for hulling and milling percentage, kernel length and length breadth ratio was observed. Hybrids were characterized as intermediate between the parents for grain quality and physico‑chemical traits. Therefore both the parents need to possess aroma, long slender grains with intermediate gelatinization temperature ( GT) to develop aromatic, long grain basmati hybrids. The restorers Basmati 385 was characterized as good general combiner for all grain quality and physico‑chemical traits while Karnal Local for grain quality and HKR 241 for physico‑chemical attributes. These restorers in combination with basmati CMS lines could be utilized for developing basmati hybrids. Heterotic hybrids for grain yield IR 58025A x Basmati 385 and IR 58025A x Karnal Local with significant SCA effects were identified as specific combinations for grain quality and physico‑chemical traits, respectively.
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