Estimation of variability parameters for certain quantitative traits in cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) genotypes
Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) is an important plantation crop of Malvaceae family and its center of origin is Upper Amazon basin of South America. In India, it is grown as an intercrop in coconut and arecanut gardens especially in South India. Morpho-agronomic characters of pods and seeds can be used to evaluate the relationship between cocoa genotypes. In the present study, significant variations inthe mean performance of 20 genotypes for 13 traits were observed which revealed that the germplasm collections being maintained have high breeding value. The GCV and PCV ranged from moderate to high. Traits like plant height, first branching height, canopy area, leaf area, pod weight and single dry bean weight recorded high PCV and GCV indicating the high variability. High heritability ranging from 52.81 per cent for number of beans per pod to 99.84 per cent for first branching height was recorded. High genetic advance as per cent of mean was recorded for canopy area (89.33 per cent). High heritability coupled with high genetic advance for all the traits except pod girth, bean length and pod value indicated that all these traits are controlled by additive gene action and has least environmental influence. Further, correlation analysis revealed association of various traits which can be used as selection criteria for efficient planning of cocoa breeding program.
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