SSR, ISSR and RAPD markers based assessment of genetic diversity in aethiopicum and melongena species of genus Solanum
The genetic diversity among 14 genotypes of Solanum melongena and Solanum aethiopicum was assessed using 40 polymorphic markers of SSR, ISSR and RAPD. Twelve RAPD markers with polymorphism percentage of 63.0 to 100.0 amplified 7.75 loci per marker with a total of 93 polymorphic bands. Sixteen polymorphic ISSR markers revealed 73 polymorphic loci with 4.56 polymorphic loci per marker and polymorphism percentage of 43.0 to 100.0 whereas 12 SSR markers amplified 43 polymorphic alleles with average polymorphic alleles per marker of 3.58. Forty markers of RAPD, ISSR and SSR detected a total of 57 unique/novel alleles with aethiopicum whereas 19 unique/novel alleles were generated in different genotypes of melongena. Each marker system individually as well as altogether exhibited least similarity coefficients of 0.24 to 0.29 between aethiopicum and melongena species of Solanum whereas higher order of similarity was observed within melongena group. Dendrograms generated using marker data of RAPD, ISSR, SSR and RAPD+ISSR+SSR separated aethiopicum and melongena in two divergent groups. We did not observe exactly similar pattern of grouping of different genotypes of melongena group in more homogenous cluster when different marker systems were compared. The Mantel test between the two Jaccard’s similarity matrices indicated high correspondence between RAPD and ISSR, RAPD and SSR, and ISSR and SSR based similarity matrices. Distribution of genotypes from different regions did not show clear clustering pattern when three marker systems were compared. Three dimensional plots of genotypes based on principal component analysis indicate close correspondence with UPGMA clustering approach.
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